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2012年自考“英美文学选读”名词解释(3)

31.HemingwayCodeHero(海明威式英雄) HemingwayCodeHero,alsocalledcodehero,isonewho,wo

  31. Hemingway Code Hero(海明威式英雄)

  Hemingway Code Hero, also called code hero, is one who, wounded but strong more sensitive, enjoys the pleasures of life (sex, alcohol, sport) in face of ruin and death, and maintains, through some notion of a code, an ideal of himself.

  2> barnes in the sun also Rises, Henry in a Farewell to arms and Santiago in the old man and the sea are typical of Hemingway Code Hero

  32. Impressionism(印象主义)

  Impressionism is a style of painting that gives the impression made by the subject on the artist without much attention to details. Writers accepted the same conviction that the personal attitudes and moods of the writer were legitimate elements in depicting character or setting or action.2>briefly, it is a style of literature characterized by the creation of general impressions and moods rather that realistic mood.

  33. Postmodernism(后现代主义)(来源于自考 365 网 hbzkw.org)

  It is a disputed term that has occupied much recent debate about contemporary culture since the early 1980s. in its simplest and least satisfactory sense it refers generally to the phase of 20th century western culture that succeeded the reign of hign modernism, thus indicating the products of the “space age” after some time in the 1950s. More often, though it is applied to a cultural condition prevailing in the advanced capitalist societies since the 1960s, characterized by a superabundance of disconnected images and styles. In this sense, post modernity is said to be a culture of fragmentary sensations, eclectic nostalgia, disposable simulacra, and promiscuous superficiality, in which the traditionally valued qualities of depth, coherence, meaning originality and authenticity are evacuated or dissolved amid the random swirl of empty signals.

  这个具有争议的名字概念是从20世纪80年代早期开始应用于近几十年的现代文化领域。最简单也最难说服人的说法是后现代主义是20世纪西方文明继高度现代主义之后的一个阶段。后现代主义是50年代太空时代的产物。通常它被用来解释自60年代起先进资本主义社会主要的社会文化现象。从这个意义上说。后现代主义被认为是片断构建的编织。折衷的怀旧主义,滥用的仿物以及混杂的浅浮,而传统所强调的深度。连贯。意义的原创性,真实性都在空洞信号的随意泛滥中消失瓦解。

  34. Confessional poetry(自白派诗歌)

  It is an autobiographical mode of verse that reveals the poet‘s personal problems with unusual frankness. The term is usually applied to certain poets of the United states from the late 1950s to the late 1960s, notably Robert Lowell. The term’s distinctive sense depends on the candid examination of what were at the time of writing virtually unmentionable kinds of private distress. The genuine strengths of confessional poets, combined with the pity evoked by their high suicide rate, encouraged in the reading public a romantic confusion between poetic excellence and inner torment.

  自白诗歌是一种自传体诗歌。诗歌主要用不寻常的坦白展示诗人的个人内心问题。自白诗歌是指50年代后期到60年代后期出现的诗人。特别是罗伯特。洛厄尔。此概念有时在广义上指任何个人或自传的诗歌,但自白诗歌最明显的特征,是坦诚揭露写作时的所思所想,个人心里忧伤的流露。自白派诗人杰出的文学才华和他们由于痛苦而引起的高自杀率,以及诗歌中处处流露着痛苦,迷茫,悲观,隐晦的气氛,让读者们阅读时产生一种诗歌精妙和内心痛苦的迷茫感。

  35. The New York School(纽约派)

  The New York School was an informal group of American poets and painters active in 1950s New York City, critics argued that their work was a reaction to the confessional‘s movement in contemporary poetry. Their poetic subject matter was often light, violent, or observational, while their writing style was often described as cosmopolitan and world-traveled. the poets often drew inspiration from surrealism and the contemporary avant-garde art movement, in particular the action painting of their friends in the New York City art circle.there are also commonalities between the New York School and the earlier Beat Generation poets active in 1940s and 1950s New York City.

  纽约派诗人是50年代活跃在纽约的美国诗人和画家的非正式群体。评论家认为他们是对同时代自白派诗歌运动的反抗。他们作品的主题通常轻快,激烈或者观察入微。他们的写作风格是全球性的。他们接受了超现实主义和先锋艺术运动,特别是纽约画界的朋友的影响创作诗。他们与40,50年代纽约的垮掉一代诗人有一定共同点。

  36. The Absurd (荒谬派)(来源于自考 365 网 hbzkw.org)

  It is a term derived from the existentialism of Albert Camus, and often applied to the modern sense of human purposelessness in a universe without meaning or value. Many 20th century writers of prose fiction have stressed the absurd nature of human existence: notable instances are the novels and stories of Franz Kafka, in which the characters face alarmingly incomprehensible predicaments.

  37. The Black Mountain Poets(黑山派诗人)

  The Black Mountain Poets refer to a group of poets active on the contemporary scene, as these people were either associated with Black Mountain college, or with Black Mountain Review, they have become known as “The Black Mountain Poets”2> the leading figure of this school of poetry was Charles Olson.

  38. Realism(现实主义)

  Realism was a loosely used term meaning truth to the observed facts of life (especially when they are gloomy)。 Realism in literature is an approach that attempts to describe life without idealization or romantic subjectivity.

  39. Allegory(寓言)

  Allegory is a story told to explain or teach something. Especially a long and complicated story with an underlying meaning different from the surface meaning of the story itself.2>allegorical novels use extended metaphors to convey moral meanings or attack certain social evils. characters in these novels often stand for different values such as virtue and vice.3>Bunyan‘s Pilgrim’s Progress, Melville‘s Moby Dick are such examples.

  40. Alliteration(头韵)

  Alliteration means a repetition of the initial sounds of several words in a line or group.

  2>alliteration is a traditional poetic device in English literature.

  3>Robert Frost‘s Acquainted with the Night is a case in point:“ I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet”

  41. Ballad(民谣)

  Ballad is a story in poetic from to be sung or recited. in more exact literary terminology, a ballad is a narrative poem consisting of quatrains of iambic tetrameter alternating with iambic trimester.(抑扬格四音步与抑扬格三音步诗行交替出现的四行叙事诗)

  2>.ballads were passed down from generation to generation. 3>Coleridge‘s The Rime of the Ancient Mariner is a 19th century English ballad.

  42. epic(史诗)

  Epic, in poetry, refers to a long work dealing with the actions of goods and heroes.

  2>Epic poems are not merely entertaining stories of legendary or historical heroes; they summarize and express the nature or ideals of an entire nation at a significant or crucial period of its history.

  3>Beowulf is the greatest national Epic of  the Anglo-Saxons.

  43. Lay(短叙事诗)

  It is a short poem, usually a romantic narrative, intended to be sung or recited by a minstrel.

  44. Romance(传奇)  (来源于自考 365 网 hbzkw.org)

  Romance is a popular literary form in the medic England.

  2>it sings knightly adventures or other heroic deeds.

  3> chivalry is the spirit of the romance.

  45. Alexandrine(亚历山大诗行)

  The name is derived from the fact that certain 12th and 13th century French poems on Alexander the Great were written in this meter.

  2>it is an iambic line of six feet, which is the French heroic verse.

3

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